Azadirachta indica as the name suggests, is indigenous to India and South Asia. It is a common tree found in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, Japan and tropical regions of Australia and Africa. In India it is known as ‘Neem’. All parts of the tree, roots, bark, gum, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and oil are used in preparation of various therapeutic use and products. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicine and agriculture since time immemorial.
The tree does not require much water for its growth, can withstand extreme heat but at the same time cleanses, cools the atmosphere and balances the oxygen level in the atmosphere. It helps to improve the fertility of the soil and to rehabilitate degraded wastelands. Planting these trees could help in the ‘green earth’ projects.
Margosa contains essential oils known as margosa or neem oil which consists of nimbin, nimbinin, and ninbidin. Sulphur is the main constituent of ninbidin. The flowers contain bitter oil which contains a highly pungent essential oil nimbosterol, nimbecetin and fatty acids besides glucoside, nimbosterin. The fruits contain baka yanin.
Margosa – acts as –-a tonic and an insecticide.
It is also :
It is therefore used –
- As a preventive against malarial fevers and cholera.
- Relieving flatulence.
- To promote the removal of phlegm from the bronchial tubes.
- To increase discharge of urine.
- To arrest secretions and bleeding.
- For spasmodic disorders.
- For gum disorders. The stem is used in many places to brush the teeth.
- For treatment of piles.
- For skin disorders.
- For hair disorders and growth.
- For eye diseases.
- For ear ailments.
- For post-parturition disorders.
- For deworming.
- For jaundice.
The margosa is said to be the most promising tree of the 21st century. Its derivatives are used in a large number of medicines, cosmetics, toiletries. Though many plant extracts have been reported to be suitable as pesticides. Margosa is the only plant from which bio-pesticides are commercially manufactured, effective, eco-friendly, and acceptable to farmers. It is commonly used as an insect repellent in the form of incense sticks, and creams. Margosa oil is also used in aromatherapy.